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 Fall 2002



 CHN451:  STRUCTURE OF CHINESE I
Introductory Study of Phonology and Morphology of Mandarin Chinese
MWF 1:30-2:20p / Moore 351



 Instructor:  Jeffrey J. Hayden  eMail:  jeffrey@hawaii.edu
 Office:  Moore 372  URL:  http://www2.hawaii.edu/~jeffrey/
 Telephone:  956 - 6881  Office Hours:  MWF 12:30-1:20p, and by appointment


 Required Texts:
  1. Norman, Jerry. (1988). Chinese. New York: Cambridge University Press.
     (pp. ii-xi, 23-57, 83-94, 133 151, 152-166. 245-265, 266-273)
  1. Course Packet (~354pp.; available from Instructor; see Table of Contents on pp. 3-6)
     Authors & Works (abridged as noted):
    • Chao, Yuen Ren. (1968). A grammar of spoken Chinese, pp. ii-xxxi, 1-56, 136-193, 194-257. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    • Kratochvil, Paul. (1968). The Chinese language today: Features of an emerging standard, pp. 1-54, 171-182. London: Hutchinson University Library.

    • Li, Charles N., & Thompson, Saundra A. (1981). Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar, pp. iii-xiv, 1-9, 10-27, 28-84. Berkeley: University of California Press.

    • Chen, Ping. (1999). Modern Chinese: History and sociolinguistics, pp. iii-ix, 1-5, 34-49, 164-190, 204 209. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    • Duanmu, San. (2000). The phonology of Modern Chinese, pp. iii-xv, 1-11, 12-50, 77-95, 96-114, 195-205, 209-236. New York: Oxford University Press.

    • Packard, Jerome. (2000). The morphology of Chinese: A linguistic and cognitive approach, pp. iii-xvi, 1-6, 7-20, 21-79. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  1. Handouts will also be provided on occasion.




 Grading:
 Class attendance and participation [including daily and weekly homework] . . . . . . . . . . .
 Daily Mini-quizzes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 Midterm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 Final Exam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
 
. . . 35%
. . . 20%
. . . 20%
. . . 25%




 Course Content:
  1. Introduction to Phonology and Morphology
  • Description of major speech sounds in general and within the Chinese language family; representation of sound; IPA.
  1. Mandarin Phonetics/Phonemics
  • Places of articulation, i.e., the mechanics of sound.
  1. Mandarin Phonology
  • Phonology of Beijing and some non-Beijing Mandarin. (Midterm)
  1. Mandarin Morphophonemics
  • The phenomena of the combination of phonology and morphology.
  1. Mandarin Morphology
  • Morphemes
  1. Syllables and Words
  • Syllables, lexical units, and words.
  1. The Word and Beyond
  • Some phonological, syntactic, and graphic characteristics of syntactic and semantic categories.




 Vital URLs: (Check here for the latest additions.)

 General and Specific Topics in Linguistics:
 Linguistics Toolbox
 Linguistics Society of America
 Summer Institute of Linguistics

 Linguistic Map of China


 Phonetics/Phonemics/Phonology:
 International Phonetic Association (IPA)
 International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
 Peter Ladefoged's Consonants and Vowels
 Speech Internet Dictionary (SID)
 Online Phonetics Course
 Ancient Scripts
 Mouton Interactive
 Phonetics Resources
 Kay Elemetrics Co.
 3D IPA Vowel Chart
 The Vocal Tract (Kevin Russell)


 Transcriptions:
 History and Prospect of Chinese Romanization
 Zhuyin Fuhao Etymology
 Chinese Romanization Table (PY/WG/GR)
 GR Junction
 A Guide to Gwoyeu Romatzyh Tonal Spelling of Chinese (David Prager Branner)
 Chinese Syllable Chart
 Comparison of Tongyong and Hanyu Pinyin


 Morphophonemics/Morphology:
 LMBM
 Morphology Course
 Essays on Morphology


 Computing and Software:
 IPA Help (PC)
 Linguist's Software
 SIL-IPA Fonts
 IPA-SAM Phonetic Fonts
 Moraic
 Arboreal
 Rich's Pinyin Fonts (Mac)
 Zev Handel's Times-Pinyin Font (PC)
 The Fool's Workshop Pinyin Fonts

(Last updated November 27, 2002.)





 CHN451 ‹ Reading Packet
Contents to be Covered
(Page numbers as in original sources. See Schedule for chronology.)



1.

Chao, Yuen Ren. (1968). A grammar of Spoken Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Prefacevii
Table of Contentsxi
List of Tablesxv
Usages of this Bookxvii
1.Introduction
1.1Grammar1
1.2Spoken Chinese12
1.3Phonology18
3.Word and Morpheme
3.1General136
3.2Free and Bound Forms143
3.3Prosodic Aspects146
3.4Substitution and Separation155
3.5Words in Functional Frames160
3.6The Word as a Unit of Meaning166
3.7Word Identity and Morpheme170
3.8Definitions and Tests for the Syntactic Word182
3.9Synoptic Tables of Word-like Units188
4.Morphological Types
4.1General194
4.2Reduplication198
4.3Prefixes211
4.4Suffixes219
4.5Infixes257

2.

Kratochvil, Paul. (1968). The Chinese language today: Features of an emerging standard. London: Hutchinson University Library.

Preface11
2.Phonemics
2.1Segmental features23
2.2Suprasegmental features35
2.3Applied phonemics47
List of Linguistic Terms171

3.

Li, Charles N., & Thompson, Sandra A. (1981). Mandarin Chinese: A functional reference grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Table of Contentsv
Prefacexiii
Conventions Used in Examplesxv
Abbreviationsxix
1.Introduction1
1.1The Chinese Language Family2
1.2The Phonology of Mandarin3
2.Typological Description10
2.1The Structural Complexity of Words: Mandarin as an Isolating Language10
2.2Monosyllabicity: The Number of Syllables per Word13
2.3Topic Prominence15
2.4Word Order16
3.Word Structure
3.1Morphological Processes28
3.2Compounds45

4.

Chen, Ping. (1999). Modern Chinese: History and sociolinguistics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Table of Contentsvii
List of Tablesix
Prefacexi
Abbreviationsxiv
1.Introduction1
3.Norms and Variations of Modern Standard Chinese
3.1Phonology of Modern Standard Chinese34
3.2Difference betweenModern Standard Chinese and the Beijing dialect37
3.3Adulterated pötînghuä41
3.4Norms of Modern Standard Chinese outside mainland China46
10.Phonetization of Chinese
10.1Efforts by Western missionaries164
10.2Schemes proposed by native Chinese165
10.3Groupings of schemes167
10.4Five representative schemes178
10.5Phonetization in Taiwan and elsewhere189
Notes204

5.

Duanmu, San. (2000). The phonology of Standard Chinese. New York: Oxford University Press.

Prefacev
Table of Contentsix
Notes on Transcriptionxii
Features, Abbreviations, and Symbolsxiv
1.Introduction
1.1Chinese and its speakers1
1.2Chinese dialects1
1.3History2
1.4The twentieth century4
1.5Phonological literature on SC7
1.6Goals of this book9
1.7Preview of chapters9
2.The Sound Inventory
2.1Introduction12
2.2Theoretical background12
2.3Sounds of SC25
2.4Feature charts for SC sounds48
4.The Syllable
4.1Introduction77
4.2Phonological representation of the syllable77
4.3Two analyses of the syllable in SC79
4.4Argument for the present analyses82
4.5Language games89
4.6Conclusions94
5.The Word
5.1Introduction96
5.2Previous criteria98
9.The [r] Suffix
9.1Introduction195
9.2Basic facts195
9.3Previous analyses197
9.4The present analysis202
9.5Further issues206
9.6Conclusions208
10.Tone: Basic Properties
10.1Introduction209
10.2Theoretical background209
10.3Tones in SC219
10.4Further issues230
10.5Conclusions236

6.

Packard, Jerome L. (2000). The morphology of Chinese: A linguistic and cognitive approach. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Contentsvii
Table of figuresxiii
List of tablesxiv
List of abbreviationsxvi
1.Introduction
1.1Rationale: why investigate Chinese words?1
1.2The scope of this work4
2.Defining the word in Chinese
2.1What is a 'word'?: different views7
2.2The Chinese concept of 'word'14
2.3How we will define 'word' in Chinese18
3.Chinese word components
3.1Describing the components21
3.2Form classes of the components34
3.3Criteria for determining form class of Chinese word components64
3.4Morphological analysis of Chinese word components67
3.5The nature of the components76
8.Chinese words: conclusions
8.1What have we discovered about words?310
8.2The reality of the 'word'316




 CHN451 ‹ Required Textbook
Contents to be Covered
(Page numbers as in original source. See Schedule for chronology.)



Norman, Jerry. (1988). Chinese. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Contentsv
Prefaceix
2.The historical phonology of Chinese
2.1Periodicization of Chinese23
2.2Sources of Middle Chinese: The Qiéyõn24
2.3The Song rhyme tables28
2.4The methodology of Middle Chinese reconstruction34
2.5The reconstruction of Old Chinese42
2.6Old Mandarin48
2.7Tonal development52
4.The classical and literary languages
4.1Classical and literary Chinese83
4.2Morphemes and words84
4.3Word classes87
6.The modern standard language I
6.1The formation of the modern standard language133
6.2The problem of nomenclature135
6.3Phonology of the standard language ‹ preliminaries138
6.4The initials139
6.5The finals141
6.6Tones145
6.7Stress and intonation148
6.8Morphophonemics149
7.The modern standard language II
7.1The study of grammar in China152
7.2The morpheme154
7.3The word155
7.4Word classes157
7.5Expression of grammatical categories159
10.Language and society
10.1Prestige of the different forms of Chinese245
10.2Diglossia, bidialectalism, bilingualism249
10.3Government language policy253
10.4The fate of alphabetic writing in China257
10.5Present and future prospects263
Notes266




 Daily Class Schedule: Readings, Homework, and Tests
(This is a tentative schedule. Activities and reading selections may be modified as the semester progresses.)



Week 1: August 26 - 30 (Class #s 1-3)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 8/26 Orientation and Introduction  + None  + None
Wed 8/28 Articulatory Phonetics: Places and Manners of Articulation (I)  + Ladefoged, 275-280
 + International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
 + Speech Internet Dictionary (SID)
 + Explore the Phonetics links and read ahead.
 + Download and print IPA chart
Fri 8/30 Articulatory Phonetics: Places and Manners of Articulation (II)  + Ladefoged, 275-280
 + Online Phonetics Course: IPA, Consonants, and Vowels
 + Explore the Phonetics links and read ahead.


Week 2: September 2 - 6 (Class #s 4-5)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 9/2 No Class - Labor Day
Wed 9/4 Authors & Works: Introduction (I)  + Chao, vii-xxxi, 1-12, 12-18
 + Kratochvil, 11-12, 171-182
 + Li & Thompson, v-xix
HW#1: C-E Transcription
Fri 9/6 Authors & Works: Introduction (II)  + Norman, v-x
 + Chen, vii-xiv, 1-3
 + Duanmu, v-xv, 1-11
 


Week 3: September 9 - 13 (Class #s 6-8)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 9/9 Chinese Phonetics: Background (I)  + Norman, 23-52, 138-139
 + Chen, 182-184 (Background)
 + Duanmu, 1-11(*Review), 12-25
HW#2: IPA E-C Transcription
Wed 9/11 Chinese Phonetics: Background (II)  + Norman, 23-52, 138-139
 + Chen, 182-184 (Background)
 + Duanmu, 1-11(*Review), 12-25
 
Fri 9/13 Articulatory Phonetics: Initials (I)  + Chao, 18-22
 + Kratochvil, 23-28
 + Norman, 139-141
 + Duanmu, 25-37
 


Week 4: September 16 - 20 (Class #s 9-11)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 9/16 Articulatory Phonetics: Initials (II)  + Chao, 18-22
 + Kratochvil, 23-28
 + Norman, 139-141
 + Duanmu, 25-37
HW#3: Consonant Features
Wed 9/18 Articulatory Phonetics: Finals (I)  + Chao, 23-25
 + Kratochvil, 28-34
 + Norman, 141-144
 + Duanmu, 37-50
 
Fri 9/20 Articulatory Phonetics: Finals (II)  + Chao, 23-25
 + Kratochvil, 28-34
 + Norman, 141-144
 + Duanmu, 37-50
 


Week 5: September 23 - 27 (Class #s 12-14)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 9/23 Articulatory Phonetics: Tones (I)  + Chao, 25-26
 + Kratochvil, 35-37
 + Norman, 52-57, 145-149
HW#4: MSC Syllable Dissection
Wed 9/25 Articulatory Phonetics: Tones (II)  + Chao, 25-26
 + Kratochvil, 35-37
 + Norman, 52-57, 145-149
 
Fri 9/27 Sound Representation: Transcription and Romanization  + Kratochvil, 47-54
 + Li & Thompson, 1-9
 + Chen, 164-190
 


Week 6: September 30 - October 4 (Class #s 15-17)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 9/30 Sound Representation: Transcription and Romanization  + Kratochvil, 47-54
 + Li & Thompson, 1-9  + Chen, 164-190
HW#5: GR Transcription
Wed 10/2 Phonology: Background/ History (II)  + Li & Thompson, 1-9(*Review)
 + Norman, 23-52(*Review), 133-144
 
Fri 10/4 Phonology: Structure  + Chen, 34-36, 41-49  


Week 7: October 7 - 11 (Class #s 18-20)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 10/7 Phonology: Syllable (I)  + Chao, 30-34
 + Duanmu, 77-95
HW#6: ZYFH Transcription
Wed 10/9 Phonology: Tones (III)  + Chao, 25-26(*Review)
 + Duanmu, 209-236
 
Fri 10/11 Phonology: Tones (IV)  + Chao, 25-26(*Review)
 + Duanmu, 209-236
 


Week 8: October 14 - 18 (Class #s 21-23)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 10/14 MIDTERM  + Review all Readings to Date  
Wed 10/16 Morphophonemics: Definition & Examples; Stress & Intonation  + Chao, 35-44
 + Kratochvil, 40-47
 + Norman, 148-151

 + Duanmu, 230-236(*Review)
 
Fri 10/18 Morphophonemics: Rhotacization/-er  + Chao, 46-52, 225-237
 + Li & Thompson, 39-40
 + Duanmu, 195-205
 


Week 9: October 21 - 25 (Class #s 24-26)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 10/21 Morphophonemics: Tone Sandhi (I)  + Chao, 26-29, 44-46
 + Kratochvil, 38-40, 40-47(*Review)
 + Li & Thompson, 8-9(*Review)
 + Norman, 145-149(*Review)
HW#7: Rhoticization
Wed 10/23 Morphophonemics: Tone Sandhi (II)  + Chao, 26-29, 44-46
 + Kratochvil, 38-40, 40-47(*Review)
 + Li & Thompson, 8-9(*Review)
 + Norman, 145-149(*Review)
 
Fri 10/25 Morphology: Structure -- General Typology  + Chao, 194-198
 + Norman, 152-155
 + Packard, 67-79
 


Week 10: October 28 - November 1 (Class #s 27-29)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 10/28 Morphology: Affixes -- Prefixes  + Chao, 211-219
 + Li & Thompson, 36-38
HW#8: Tone Sandhi Modification
Wed 10/30 Morphology: Affixes -- Suffixes -- Infixes (I)  + Chao, 219-257(*Some Review)
 + Li & Thompson, 38-45
 
Fri 11/1 Morphology: Affixes -- Suffixes -- Infixes (II)  + Chao, 219-257(*Some Review)
 + Li & Thompson, 38-45
 


Week 11: November 4 - 8 (Class #s 30-32)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 11/4 Morphology: Reduplication (I)  + Chao, 198-211
 + Li & Thompson, 28-36
HW#9: Reduplication
Wed 11/6 Morphology: Reduplication (II)  + Chao, 198-211
 + Li & Thompson, 28-36
 
Fri 11/8 The Syllable and the Word: The Syllable (II)  + Chao, 30-34(*Review), 136-160
 + Li & Thompson, 10-15
 + Norman, 83-87
 + Duanmu, 77-95(*Review)
 


Week 12: November 11 - 15 (Class #s 33-34)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 11/11 No Class - Veterans Day
Wed 11/13 The Syllable and the Word: The Syllable (III)  + Chao, 30-34(*Review), 136-160
 + Li & Thompson, 10-15
 + Norman, 83-87
 + Duanmu, 77-95(*Review)
HW#10: Morpheme Dissection (1)
Fri 11/15 The Syllable and the Word: The Word (I) -- Framework  + Chao, 160-194  


Week 13: November 18 - 22 (Class #s 35-37)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 11/18 The Syllable and the Word: The Word (II) -- Classes  + Norman, 87-94, 155-166 HW#11: Morpheme Dissection (2)
Wed 11/20 The Syllable and the Word: The Word (III)  + Duanmu, 96-114  
Fri 11/22 No Class - Hayden Day


Week 14: November 25 - 29 (Class #s 38-39)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 11/25 The Syllable and the Word: The Word (IV)  + Packard, 1-20  
Wed 11/27 The Syllable and the Word: Compounds (I) -- Nouns and Verbs  + Li & Thompson, 45-70 HW#12: Commentary: "Nongmin" is not an Adjective
TradCHN   SimpCHN
Fri 11/29 No Class - Thanksgiving Holiday


Week 15: December 2 - 6 (Class #s 40-42)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 12/2 The Syllable and the Word: Compounds (II) -- Subject-Predicate -- Verb-Object  + Li & Thompson, 70-84  
Wed 12/4 The Word and Beyond: Word Order  + Li & Thompson, 15-27  
Fri 12/6 The Word and Beyond: Language and Society  + Norman, 245-265  


Week 16: December 9 - 13 (Class #s 43-44)
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 12/9 The Word and Beyond: Word Components  + Packard, 21-67, 67-79(*Review)  
Wed 12/11 The Word and Beyond: Conclusions  + Packard, 310-317  
Fri 12/13 No Class - Reading Day - Study Period


Week 17: December 16 - 20
Date Topic Reading / Preparation Homework Due
Mon 12/16 Final Exam: 2:15-4:15pm  + Review All Readings & Notes for Entire Semester  + None
Wed 12/18      
Fri 12/20